“Makeup for a Tractor”
WE of Allis-Chalmers-March/April 1946
It takes four minutes for two men armed with spray guns to put on a tractor’s “makeup.” The smooth, shiny coat of Persian orange paint the spraymen apply makes A-C tractors look like slabs of sunshine as they roll off the West Allis assembly line at the rate of 150 each day to farms and industrial plants throughout the world. Similar painting processes are carried on at all A-C tractor branch plants.
Orange paint was adopted in 1928 as the color most suitable for A-C products after a series of color tests were made in various locales with different backgrounds. It was discovered that orange equipment could always be easily distinguished from the surrounding countryside even though the machine might be covered with dust and dirt from the fields. Prior to this, from 1919 to 1928, A-C had painted tractors deep green with yellow striping.
The first step in painting a tractor is to prepare it for the spraying operation. To produce a successful paint job, all the grease and dust which has accumulated on the parts during their journey along the assembly line must be washed off completely. This is done by giving the tractor a shower bath in a chamber about 35 feet long. Sprays shoot out from the sides, top, and floor of this chamber so that the bath will be a thorough one. The tractor is washed in the first half of the area and rinsed in the second half. Two tanks provide treated waters for the operation. One contains a washing solution composed of compounds to cut grease; the other holds a rinsing solution of Sodium Chromate to prevent rust formations. Warm water, about 130˚ to 140˚, is used. The tractor is cleansed and rinsed in this area for about 15 minutes.
WATER BLOWN OFF
When the washing phase is completed, the tractor proceeds automatically into the next area where the water is blown off by two men using air hoses. Excess water that cannot be blown off using the hose is wiped off by hand. Cup goggles are furnished [to] the men for their protection during this operation. Now, the tractor is ready to be sprayed and moves on to the spray booths.
It looks like a very easy process to spray a tractor, but in reality the job is a difficult one, for the paint must be sprayed onto the tractor anatomy at certain angles depending upon which particular part or portion is being sprayed. If the paint is not applied properly, it will tend to become thick or runny. It takes about one gallon of paint to spray a “B” or “C” model tractor and about one and one-half gallons to cover a “WF” or “WC” model. Sprays vary, according to the individual preference of the painter, although it takes 20 pounds of pressure to force the paint from the drum into the spray gun, and approximately 70 pounds of pressure in the gun to break up the paint into small particles for spray painting purposes.
About 1,250 gallons of paint are used each week. The paint comes in 50-52 gallon drums and must be thinned to make it adaptable for spraying purposes. Best results are obtained if the paint is kept at a 70˚ temperature.
Two men spray each tractor. They wear canvas gloves, coveralls, and chemical cartridge respirators. The respirator protects the painters from the solvent fumes used in paint and also from small particles of paint which may not have been eliminated through the regular exhaust system, although this system is more than adequate. These particles are most likely to be encountered when the sprayman is bending over to reach the lower sections of the tractor. Each day the sprayman receives a cleaned, sterile respirator from the Personal Protective Equipment Headquarters.
On the side wall of the spraying booth there is a constant stream of water, resembling a waterfall, to absorb the paint fumes. From this miniature falls, a pool is formed at the edge of the booth which catches excess paint that misses the tractor. From atop this pool, the paint can be salvaged by scooping it up and reprocessing it into more paint to be used for safety lines, skids, etc. There are about 100 gallons of paint sludge removed from here each week. Thus the circulating waters have a double purpose.
After the paint has been applied, the tractor moves into the drying oven, a cave-like affair, 85 feet long. Inside, the tractors bask for 30 minutes in temperatures that reach 180˚ to 200˚ when the tractor reaches the center of the oven. The temperature is regulated according to the model of the tractor and the rate of production in effect at the time. When the tractor leaves the drying oven, it is garbed in a bright shiny, permanent coat of orange paint. At this time the storage battery, steering wheel, and tires are put onto the tractor.
COLOR TO SUIT
Sometimes a color other than the traditional orange is requested by a foreign country or other group for their tractors. India, for example, prefers a very deep red; and Africa requests Coronado, a straw tan color. Some of the southern states in the U.S. desire a Canary Yellow. The U.S. Army also requests Canary Yellow for its airfields, but generally uses Olive Drab. Tractors built to travel in snowy sectors, or snowmobiles, are painted an eggshell shade.
One of the last steps before a tractor is ready to be on its way to an A-C customer is to apply the Allis-Chalmers name. This operation takes only a few seconds, because a transfer is used. Then, several other smaller labels are added and we have an A-C tractor. . . sealed, signed, and all set for delivery.